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Studies and researches
Vol. 15 Issue 1 - 6/2023
SPACE-RL Innovation Transfer Model “Science – Business”
The article deals with creating the innovation transfer model “science - production – business”. It is based on quantitative indicators for assessing the external environment and market analysis, the landscape for implementing the development and introduction of innovation and evaluating the internal environment and the level of readiness for implementation. The authors provide ways of commercializing the scientific research results and describe the role of an entrepreneurial university in achieving the main tasks of innovation and technology transfer. A combined SPACE-RL model for assessing the prospects for new scientific ”products” concerning external and internal influencing factors is proposed. The SPACE matrix, from a subjective assessment tool based on qualitative indicators determined by experts, has turned into a SPACE-RL model, in which it is possible to compare the entrepreneurial university's capabilities in terms of the strategy of bringing the invention to the market and the readiness of the invention to become innovation The SPACE-RL model maximally objectifies the innovation transfer process, reducing the influence of qualitative factors on decision-making. Read more
Keywords:
transfer model, technology transfer, innovation, entrepreneurial university, commercializing, SPACE-RL model

JEL:
O31, O32
Studies and researches
Vol. 15 Issue 1 - 6/2023
Applications of Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour in Making Decision to Adopt a Career in Social Entrepreneurship
The primary objective of the research is to identify the determinants that influence the decision-making process of entrepreneurs in pursuing a social enterprise. The study is based on the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour, which is a well-known framework used to forecast intentions, encompassing social entrepreneurial career intentions. However, prior research has predominantly focused on conventional entrepreneurship. The central aim of this research is to explore whether there are any variations in the factors that influence the intention of establishing a social enterprise as a means of conducting one's own business. The current study specifically investigates the degree of correlation between Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour predictors and the intentions of pursuing a socially entrepreneurial career. The research compares the determinants that underlie the decision to launch a social enterprise based on a comprehensive sample of 142 Romanian social entrepreneurs and their evaluations of social entrepreneurial career intentions. The findings validate the widespread impact of attitudes and perceived behavioural control (self-efficacy) on social entrepreneurial career intentions, as well as the effects of subjective norms. Read more
Keywords:
entrepreneurial career, social entrepreneurship, intention, Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour, factors

JEL:
M14, M21
Studies and researches
Vol. 15 Issue 1 - 6/2023
Financial Data as a Mirror of an Economic Story. An Empirical Approach to the Impact of the COVID19 Pandemic on the Financial Equilibrium
The present article aims to analyze how the imbalances generated by the economic and medical crisis caused by the COVID 19 pandemic in 2020 were reflected in the balance and economic performance at the microeconomic level. Two companies operating in two of the most affected economic areas in 2020, Tourism and Pharmaceutical Industry, represented the foundation of our analysis. Accounting data from the Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss Account, available on the website of the Bucharest Stock Exchange, were the main tools for analyzing the impact that the economic and medical crisis had on indicators such as Working Capital, Self-financing Capacity, Current Ratio, Debt / Equity Ratio, Return on Assets, Return on Equity, etc. The period under consideration covers a period of 4 years, i.e., 2018-2021.  The two areas of activity represent, in our opinion, two major poles of the effects of the COVID 19 pandemic, being the loser and the winner (in financial terms) of the economic and medical developments generated by these. The questions we propose to answer based on the financial analysis are: could these two companies also be considered the winner and the loser of 2020 crisis? And what is the story told by the financial data about a company's vulnerability during the crisis? Read more
Keywords:
Financial data, COVID-19 pandemic, financial analysis, balance sheet, profit and loss account

JEL:
M21, G31
Studies and researches
Vol. 15 Issue 1 - 6/2023
Influence of Net Working Capital on Trade Profitability in Serbia
­ The problem of managing working capital, i.e. net working capital in trade, is very specific, challenging, current, significant and complex. In order to achieve the target financial performance, it is necessary to manage working capital as efficiently as possible. Based on that, this paper analyses the dynamics of size and the impact of net working capital on the profitability of trade in Serbia. In the period 2013 - 2021, in the trade of Serbia, the maximum amount of net working capital was achieved in 2021, the maximum percentage of net working capital from assets was achieved in 2021, the maximum percentage of net working capital from sales was achieved in 2021, and the maximum profitability was achieved in 2021. In the specific case, there is a strong correlation between profitability and net working capital of trade in Serbia. The coefficient of determination is high (Adjusted R Square .941; Sig. F Change .000). The influence of net working capital on the profitability of trade in Serbia is very significant (Sig. .000). This means, in other words, that more efficient management of net working capital can have a significant impact on the profitability of trade in Serbia. Observed dynamically, the amount of net working capital of trade in Serbia has increased recently. This had a positive impact on its liquidity, solvency, efficiency and profitability. Recently, the productivity of trade in Serbia has also increased. The factors that influenced it were: favourable economic climate, foreign retail chains, application of new business models, new concepts of management of costs, income, profit, customers, product categories, application of the concept of sustainable development and digitization of the entire business. ­ Read more
Keywords:
current assets, short-term liabilities, net working capital, profitability, Serbian trade

JEL:
M31, O32, L81, M41
Studies and researches
Vol. 15 Issue 1 - 6/2023
How Board Size and Board Independence Affect Insurance Companies’ Performance
In the last two decades, corporate governance has had its “shining era of research”, especially in developed countries, where good management, transparency, and reaching the investors’ basis meant a huge deal for big corporations. Without reducing the importance of the subject, such issues have reached the developing countries a bit later in time, and investigation on the matter has been not so extensive, especially due to the lack of proper legal framework and real data. Yet corporate governance is reaching an interest lately in emerging markets, like Albania which aspires to be in the Union, and due to the “new normality” in the management style, which requires a re-adjustment of business structures. This paper attempts to determine the role that board size and board independence as corporate governance variables have in a company’s performance, measured by the board of directors’ characteristics. Even though at a very initial stage of its development, the insurance industry in Albania has applied certain corporate governance structures, mainly because insurance companies are part of international groups. As the insurance industry is integrated into the wider financial services and nowadays is getting more important in the local service-based financial market, understanding the factors affecting its profitability becomes important too. The results of this study show that there is a negative relationship between board size and corporate performance, while there is a positive relationship between board independence and corporate performance. Read more
Keywords:
Corporate governance, insurance industry, board size, board independence, corporate performance

JEL:
G34, G52
Studies and researches
Vol. 15 Issue 1 - 6/2023
Investigating Causal Spillovers among International Stock Markets
Recognizing how financial shocks are transmitted to national economies will enable policymakers to take appropriate fiscal and monetary policy action. Such actions will be able to prevent or reduce the intensity of shocks to critical macroeconomic variables. Observing the financial crises in countries of the European Union and Argentina, highlights the main similarities and differences they present in the context of their course in international economic conditions. This study investigates the relation among international stock indices of major importance and stock indices of less developed economies during normal periods and the Covid-19 pandemic by employing a Vector Autoregression (VAR) framework. Econometric outcomes indicate that the German DAX30 and the British FTSE100 indices are positively influential towards the Greek ATX and the Portuguese PSI20 indices. Notably, this impact is revealed to fade out as more lags are considered. Moreover, the French CAC40 index is found to exert negative effects on the Greek and Portuguese indices and its impacts also diminish as time passes. Notably, the Argentinian stock index is found to be both a transmitter of purely negative effects towards the Italian and the Spanish stock indices while impacts on the Greek and the Portuguese indices turn into positive with the evolution of time. Nevertheless, its influence on stock indices of more advanced economies (DAX30, FTSE100) is found to be weaker. This paper serves as a compass for interested investors in order to better allocate their resources during normal periods as well as during crises. Read more
Keywords:
Causal spillovers, international stock markets, vector autoregression

JEL:
G15
Studies and researches
Vol. 15 Issue 1 - 6/2023
Analysis of the Volatility of Renewable Sources of Electricity in Romania and the Assessment of Their Capacity to Replace the Conventional Sources
The current energy crisis in Europe, largely generated by the considerable reduction in Russian natural gas flows, forces the European authorities to accelerate the transition to renewable energy sources, although changing the structure of the energy mix too quickly can generate accentuated imbalances, which translate into major costs of balancing and in higher bills for end consumers. The study involves the analysis of the historical volatility of energy production from renewable sources in Romania (hydropower, wind energy, photovoltaic energy, and that from biomass), by using ARCH/GARCH models through EVIEWS 12 software, and its contribution to national consumption, in the period January 1st, 2020 - September 1st, 2022, using actualized at 10-minutes intervals. The research results highlight the instability of energy production from renewable sources and the need to identify solutions to reduce balancing costs, so that green energy can represent a cost-effective solution for ensuring energy independence and combating pollution, both from a technical and economic point of view. Read more
Keywords:
electricity, renewable energy, volatility, pollution

JEL:
F64, K32, P18, Q42
Studies and researches
Vol. 15 Issue 1 - 6/2023
Critical Thinking Stance in Teaching Business and Economics. Explorative Qualitative Study in Higher Education
In this paper we present the triangulation of three data sets, observation, focus groups and document analysis in order to reveal the differences between Higher Education Institution (HEI) and Labor Market Organization (LMO) regarding critical thinking (CT) development. The three methods were used chronologically, starting with observation, and continuing to focus groups and document analysis. The results showed that teaching methods were the most "forgotten" item in HEI and were abundant in LMO training settings. Moreover, teaching strategies are different, LMO employing social-constructivist type, different from HEI teachers, which focuses in particular on the transmission of information. The results showed, in this case, that the expectations were confirmed. HEI focuses on the interpretative and analytic aspects of CT, while LMO focuses also on dispositions, enhancing skills like responsibility, awareness, identification, and analysis, interpretation, self-learning. But both HEI and LMO, are addressing CT indirectly, through an implicit teaching approach. The research was carried out as part of the Critical thinking for successful jobs - THINK4JOBS project, which proposes an innovative approach to CT for a better insertion of students in the labour market. Read more
Keywords:
critical thinking, economics, labour market, higher education institution

EJIS is published under the research grant no. 91-058/2007 The Development of Interdisciplinary Academic Research Aimed at Enhancing the Romanian Universities International Competitiveness, coordinated by The Bucharest University of Economic Studies and financed by CNMP Romania.
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