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Studies and researches
Vol. 11 Issue 2 - 12/2019
Assessing the Local Developmental Impact of Hydrocarbon Exploitation in a Mature Region: A Random Forest Approach
The impact of natural resource exploitation has been a controversial topic, subject to intense debate. The literature has traditionally focused on its consequences on national socioeconomic development. More recently, scholars concentrated on local effects following greater availability of data at the subnational and project level. We add to the literature by concentrating on Romanian oil and gas operations, a mature region with a long history of hydrocarbon activities. Such regions have seldom been studied and we argue that in light of the ongoing energy transition these should garner greater interest, particularly those located within the European Union where environmental pressure is significant. Our methodology consists of testing the ability of the random forest classification algorithm to distinguish between local communities with oil and gas operations present and those without on a number of indicators which could be broadly considered developmental. The algorithm fails to accurately classify hydrocarbon-intensive communities, indicating that there are no significant differences between these and the rest. We argue that this is likely due to the limited tax collection powers of local governments, with royalties going directly to the central government with no specific distribution provision at the local level. Another potential explanation may be the diversification of local economies and existing related manufacturing and services activities. Read more
Keywords:
random forest, resource curse, hydrocarbon, extractive industry, local development

JEL:
O13, Q32, Q35
Studies and researches
Vol. 11 Issue 2 - 12/2019
The Balkans as a Hierarchical Market Economy
The Balkan capitalism has been classified as: Coordinated, Liberal, Mediterranean and as a version of the region itself. Nevertheless, such classifications do not consider the hierarchical economy levels of the region, which for developing countries is a very important feature. Schneider classified the Latin American economies as hierarchical and points out such classification could be applied to middle-income economies of other regions of the world. The aim of the paper is to show that Balkan economies can be considered as hierarchical. To do that, we estimate a Hierarchical Economy index to both regions (Balkans and Latin America). Besides, we test the relationship between inequality and the hierarchical levels (suggested by Schneider). Results show Balkan economies can be classified as hierarchical, because their hierarchical economy indexes are similar to those presented by Latin American economies and there is a negative relationship between inequality and the hierarchical levels among middle-income countries. Read more
Keywords:
hierarchical market economy, Balkans, Latin America, lack of competitiveness, inequality

JEL:
O15, O52, P50
Studies and researches
Vol. 11 Issue 2 - 12/2019
Subjective Dimension of Mental Health: Psychometric Properties of the Ukrainian Version of Orientation to Happiness Scale
According to Seligman’s concept of authentic happiness, people tend to choose one of three different ways to be happy: through pleasure, through engagement, and through meaning. This paper addresses the development of Ukrainian adaptation of the 18-item three-dimensional Orientation to Happiness Scale (Peterson, Park, Seligman, 2005) and the examination of its psychometric properties. On the results of PCA (N = 468) a three-factor structure due to a theoretical framework was confirmed with Cronbach’s alphas between .65 and .80. A satisfactory test-retest stability for each sub-scale in the 4-week period (N = 123) and the construct validity were revealed. During criterion-validity analysis statistically significant differences (p < .05) in orientations to happiness were shown for religious and non-religious people, reflecting the specificity of connections between happiness, faith, and religious behaviour. Read more
Keywords:
orientations to happiness, psychometric properties, well-being

JEL:
Z13, I31, I10
Studies and researches
Vol. 11 Issue 2 - 12/2019
Dynamics of a Cournot Game with Differentiated Goods and Asymmetric Cost Functions based on Relative Profit Maximization
This paper tries to investigate the complex characteristics behind quantity competition using generalized relative profit functions. For this purpose, we study the dynamics of a nonlinear Cournot – type duopoly game with differentiated goods and generalized relative profit maximization. We suppose a linear demand and asymmetric cost functions. The game is modeled with a system of two difference equations. Results concerning the equilibria of the economic model and their stability are presented and the occurrence of bifurcations is stated. We show that the model gives more complex, chaotic and unpredictable trajectories. Numerical experiments are presented. Read more
Keywords:
Cournot duopoly game, discrete dynamical system, relative profit, homogeneous expectations, stability, chaotic behavior

JEL:
C62, C72, D43
Young researchers
Vol. 11 Issue 2 - 12/2019
An Overview of Gender Equality in Egypt
Unlike the majority of ancient societies, Egypt held women at a very high eminence rendering them equitable status with men. Ancient Egyptian women possessed equal legal as well as political rights as men, the matter that has been expressed through a lot of Egyptian art and manuscripts. At a certain point in history Egyptian women ruled the country as queens and pharaohs. Unfortunately, moving into the present time the status of women in Egypt shows a profound retreat. Empowering women and incorporating them as vital members and partakers in all realms of life is not a luxury anymore but rather a necessity. Regrettably, gender inequality in Egypt remains to be a fundamental barrier hindering the accomplishment of this goal. It is the aim of this paper to shed light on the current situation of women in Egypt through comparisons with other neighbouring countries as well as with global indices at present. Conclusions show that despite some improvements, a lot remains to be done in order to ensure gender equality that is required to endorse sustainable development goals in Egypt. Read more
Keywords:
Gender Inequality Index (GII), Global Gender Gap Index (GGI), Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), Gender Development Index (GDI), legal system, Egypt

JEL:
J16, J71, F63
EJIS is published under the research grant no. 91-058/2007 The Development of Interdisciplinary Academic Research Aimed at Enhancing the Romanian Universities International Competitiveness, coordinated by the Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies and financed by CNMP Romania.
The Call for Papers is:

OPEN

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