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Studies and researches
Vol. 12 Issue 1 - 6/2020
Slavery and Liberalism in the Empire of Brazil (1822-1889): Historical and Legal Aspects of an Incoherent Relation
This article aims to contribute to studies that analyse the concepts of liberalism and its theoretical limits. Our background is the construction of the Empire of Brazil (1822 - 1889), specifically through the Constitution of 1824 in which the defence of individual freedom, civil and property rights were central points of its formulation. This liberal-biased Constitution coexisted with the restriction of the freedom of some, the enslaved, imposed by others, the slave owners. This maintenance of slavery coexisting with the ideals of liberalism could create the impression of a falsification of liberal ideas. The scope of this paper is to analyse how the bases of slavery inherited from the colonial period were able to fit into a new liberal political structure. The research indicates that the end of slavery without any reparations to the former slaves generated social implications as discrimination based on race and persistent inequalities still relevant for modern day Brazil and that the apparent incoherence was not in the association of slavery and liberalism, but in the supposed dichotomy created between these two concepts. Read more
Keywords:
liberalism, slavery, Brazil, empire, racism

Studies and researches
Vol. 12 Issue 1 - 6/2020
Concentration of Economic Activities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

The comprehension of economic aggregates at the spatial level is important because it allows knowing the characteristics of each geographic region. So, the estimates of the economic activity's concentration in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia that we developed are based on aggregated data from the national system of economic statistics which are based on an administratively determined geographical area scale. These concentrations are expressed as indexes, known as Hoover's which reveals a high concentration of the trade and construction sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, while the Kingdom's Gini index make known that was an equal distribution of wages. Whereas, the similar indexes which are Ellison-Glaeser and Maurel & Sédillot, reveal a strong concentration located in the cities of Riyadh, Makkah and Easte province. In addition, the Herfindahl index illustrates that Mining and quarrying is the sector that provides more jobs. And from another point of view, the Krugman index indicates that financial and insurance sector activity is a specialization in the Kingdom. It’s therefore appropriate to note that our concentration measurements are derived from aggregated data on economic activities in a spatial dimension defined by the administrative areas of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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Keywords:
spatial concentration, specialization, economic integration

JEL:
P35, P47, R12
Young researchers
Vol. 12 Issue 1 - 6/2020
The Romanian-Turkish Relationships: The View of the Romanian Students
This article aims to provide an image on the Romanian-Turkish relationships from the perspective of the Romanian students. The rationale of the research lays on the importance of the perception the host country has about different groups of diasporas in the evolution of the relationships between countries. The study has an explorative value and adds to the existed empirical studies that investigate the image of the bilateral relationships between countries. The research has been conducted on 187 students from different universities from Romania. The main results identified a good image of Turkey, despite a less good opinion on the relations between the two countries over time; the students consider that the Romanian-Turkish relations have a good development potential; students are relatively reluctant about Turkey's accession to the European Union; the image of the traditional Turkish minority in Romania is a good one. Read more
Keywords:
Turkish diaspora, country image, survey, Turkey-Romania relations, Turkey's accession to European Union;

JEL:
F63, J15
Opinions
Vol. 12 Issue 1 - 6/2020
The Role of Historical Memory in Japan - South Korea Relations
The present paper investigates the latest developments in the Japan-South Korea economic and political relationship, reviewing the recent (2019) far-reaching consequences of the conflict over the compensation for forced labour. The paper argues that the issue of wartime forced labour has been intensely politicized by both governments, and their inability to find consensus on this particular historical issue has severely corroded economic and diplomatic ties. Ultimately, the analysis of bilateral relations shows that both governments have been acquiring political capital from positioning themselves one against the other. Read more
Keywords:
South Korea–Japan relations, history wars, forced labour, compensation, trade conflict, conflicts in East Asia

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Vol. 12 Issue 1 - 6/2020
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EJIS is published under the research grant no. 91-058/2007 The Development of Interdisciplinary Academic Research Aimed at Enhancing the Romanian Universities International Competitiveness, coordinated by the Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies and financed by CNMP Romania.
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